Changchun was founded more than 200 years ago. A lot of complete and distinctive historical blocks in construction period of railway in Middle East, construction period of Manchukuo and construction period of New China have been left over. These precious historical and cultural heritages recorded the history of urban development.
From 2007 to 2009, under the leadership of municipal party committee and municipal government, Municipal Planning Bureau had organized technicians to conduct a monographic study on historical blocks and buildings and prelim in arily determined the historical periods of Changchun urban construction. Through a deep analysis of 13 historical blocks, it finally confirmed that ten typical historical districts could represent historical periods of Changchun urban development. On March 16,2010, The People’s Government of Jilin Province approved the historical and cultural blocks application of Changchun, including People’s Street, Xinmin Street, Puppet Manchukuo Palace, South Plaza, First Automatic Works and Kuanchengzi Station of Middle East Railway. The protection plan for 6 Changchun blocks was compiled in the same year. After passing expert argumentation in June, 2010, it become an important technical support for Changchun historical and cultural blocks.
On June 8, 2012, the historical and cultural district of Changchun Xinmin Street has gained the title of the fourth“ Top ten famous historical and cultural street of China”due to its complete historical layout, unique historical buildings, intact historical yards and abundant greening system.
The historical block of Xinmen Street was located in Chaoyang district, north of Nanhu Road, south of Xi’an Road. The total planning land area to be used is 365.4 hectares.
As the concentrated construction area of important administrative bodies in Manchukuo period, the historical block of Xinmin Street is a important testimonies of the history for Japanese invasion and attempt to dominate northeast of China in a long term, which has profound historical and educational significances. Xinmin Street has played a guiding role for the formation of Changchun urban overall style and enhanced Changchun’ s leading position of national urban planning at the beginning of construction. Its site selection, planning and construction were affected by Chinese traditional ideas of urban planning while combining western advanced planning ideas. Therefore, it presents characteristics of vertical expansion of layout, axial symmetry of building and opulent greening levels. The government office buildings distributed on both sides have comparatively high architectural artistic value and fully reflected modern design style mixed with east and west. It is a special and unique part of Chinese architectural history.
This objects of protection of this block mainly include the overall spatial pattern of the block, historical streets and lanes, spatial and culture relic protection sites on both sides of Xinmin Street, historical buildings and a green ecological system formed by park---square---road green belt.
The historical block of the First Automobile Works is located in the development zone of automobile industry in southwest of Changchun, which includes both the factory and the living area. The total area of planning is approximately176.2 hectares.
As one of 156 key projects constructed in the period of first Five-Year Plan of China, the First Automobile Works is the cradle of China’s automobile industry. Having produced our country’s first automobile, the first car and became the first automobile enterprise with the amount of production and sales being more than millions of cars and the landmark witness of industrial development of New China. The construction of factory and dormitory area is the friendly crystal of China-Soviet and one of biggest factory and dormitory area after the establishment of New China. Its planning methods have a special position in our country’s urban planning history. The foundation stone with the writings of “foundation commemorate of First Automobile Works” by Chairman Mao is still standing in front of Gate No.1. The state leaders like Jiang Zemin and Li Lanqing have ever lived and worked there.
In front of the gate of FAW is a broad square surrounded by four lighthouses, the internal factory was in a determinant layout and the buildings are in a rectangle plane with walls of ganged red bricks. The residential area has a layout of courtyard-style and both the plant area and the residential area are arranged with a mass of green lands, giving a sense of garden city.
The plan defined the functional position of the historical and cultural block of FAW as: one of biggest automobile industrial area and matched residential area of New China with living and automobile manufacturing as priority and tourism as supplement. The plan summarized spatial layout structure of historical and cultural block as “ one axis, double cores, two area”. “One axis” means the comprehensive functional axis of Dongfeng Street throughout living and manufacturing functional areas that connects two functional cores. “ Double Cores” mean the residential service center of Yingchun square and office service center of the square in front of the No.1 gate of FAW. “Two Areas” means the residential area and the manufacturing area.